Physiotherapy & Early Intervention for Children with Special Needs

Latest Physiotherapy Articles

Overcoming Hypotonia in Down Syndrome

There are numerous factors that causes gross motor delay in Down Syndrome. Hypotonia and ligamentous laxity due to the abnormal collagen content causes movement to be effortful, resulting in delay in achievement of a motor skill. Attached is the power point presentation done for Down Syndrome Association Singapore to empower parents on what can be done and treatments available to help these children to maximise their gross motor potential.


Overcoming Hypotonia in Down Syndrome
Overcoming Hypotonia in Down Syndrome
Overcoming hypotonia DSA.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 7.1 MB

How to choose backpack for your child


  1. How does carrying heavy bags hurt children's backs? What are some common complaints? Are children more susceptible to back injuries?


Carrying heavy bags can cause shoulder and back pain in children. A heavy backpack, when used incorrectly, can pull the child backwards. The child will have to use compensatory strategies of either sticking the neck forward with a rounded shoulder and/or tightening the back muscles to maintain his/her balance... (Read more)

Red Flags in Gross Motor development from 0-5 years

Gross motor development in children follows a similar pattern. For instance, a child should be able to roll by 6 months and walk independently by 18 months. If parents notice that their child is still not reaching the appropriate milestone, it is a warning sign, or red flag, and the child should be brought to medical attention. The delay in milestone may signify something ominous and bringing the child to medical attention early ensures no child gets left behind....(Read more)

Gross motor milestones 0-6 months

A newborn’s movement is controlled mainly by reflexes. The reflexes include asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR), Moro, rooting, sucking and swallowing reflex. Due to the position in womb over 40 weeks, a newborn adopts a fetal posture. In lying, the arms and leg are held close to the body. On the tummy, the infant head is turned to one side, the buttocks are humped up and knees are flexed under the abdomen....(Read more)

Gross Motor Milestone (7-12 months)

Sitting balance is improving. The child will be able to sit momentarily without arm support. In prone, the trunk extensors and upper limbs are strong enough to allow child to push his chest off the floor. He will be able to reach for objects with one hand, while supporting the weight of the upper body with the other...(Read more)

Gross Motor Milestone (12-18months)

At 12 months, your child may take his very first independent step.  Independent walking is a very important milestone. It represents a new phase of the child’s development, being independent from caregiver and able to explore new things on his own that used to be out of reach. With the new found skill, he will be a more confident baby. He will be constantly challenging his walking and balance skills on different terrians and falling occasionally. It is definitely alright to fall, as no baby can learn how to walk without falling....(Read more)

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a brain disorder that happens in infancy or early childhood. Cerebral palsy is non contagious and non progressive. The traditional classification of cerebral palsy is according to the type of muscle impairment and the number of limbs involved. ..There are numerous risk factors that are related to cerebral palsy....(Read more)

Intoeing or ‘Pigeon Toed’ Walking in Children

Intoeing gait or ‘pigeon toed’ is defined as walking with the feet pointing inwards. In general, intoeing gait in a child can be caused by 3 components:
Feet – inward curve of the feet bone (metatarsus adductus)
Knee – inward rotation of lower leg bone (medial tibial torsion)
Hip – increase internal rotation if thigh bone (femoral anterversion)...(Read more)


Plagio- in Greek refers to ‘oblique’; Cephalad- refers to the head. In combination, the term plagiocephaly refers to a musculoskeletal condition in which there is an asymmetry of the baby’s head, or oblique head, when viewed from the top. This is often accompanied by torticollis (head rotated and/or side tilted) and mandibular hypoplasia (smaller jaw bone on one side)....(Read more)

Tummy Time

Since 1992 when ‘Back to sleep’ campaign was started to prevent  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), some parents are avoiding putting their babies in the the tummy down position. However, what is known now is the exact causes of SIDS is still unknown. Avoiding the tummy down position has caused an ‘epidemic’ of plagiocephaly (flattening of the skull, often associated with torticollis). In addition, babies who are not placed on their tummy are found to have delay in their motor milestone, e.g. head control are developed at an older age then what it should have been. This is due to lack of opportunity for babies to strengthen their body in the anti-gravity position while they are on their tummy. Hence tummy time is an important exercise for all babies....(Read more)

Paediatric Physiotherapy

In the field of paediatric physiotherapy, physiotherapists are trained to understand in-depth and treat a wide range of childhood conditions ranging from musculoskeletal to neurological problems. Paediatric Physiotherapist understands that children learn through play, thus, will design activities to make therapy fun. Not everyone can work with kids hence paediatric physiotherapist have that '‘special touch’' on children...(Read more)

Cycling for Kids

Cycling is a life skill that will not be forgotten once mastered. It is an advance motor skill that involves the integration of several motor skills, such as balance, left-right, hand-eye and leg-eye coordination. Repeated practice reinforces these skills to form a ‘cycling program’ which is stored in the brain, and to be retrieved when required. That is why some skill, such as swimming and cycling, will ‘never’ be forgotten...(Read more)

Infant Massage

Massage has been used since ancient times to improve well-being of babies. In fact, it is used so often that caregivers have been using it without realization. Massage starts with the very first contact with the baby – caressing, stroking the tiny hands and touching the velvety soft skin. When these strokes are added together, a massage is created. Infant massage is a sequence of strokes adapted from Indian massage, Swedish massage and foot reflexology. When put together, it creates a powerful massage technique that has been proven by research to be highly beneficial to babies...(Read more)

Choosing Shoes For Your Child

Choosing shoes for your child is an art and science combine, literally. It has to fit the aesthetics as well as the science behind the design of the shoes. An infant’s feet consist of mainly cartilage and muscles. At this stage, the feet is soft and pliable. The foot’s arch will appear at about 2 to 4 years of age and will continue to develop according to external forces till late teens...(Read more)